Sr.No. Study Region Data collectionStudy cohort No. of samples HIV-1 subtype NNRTI resistance NRTI resistance PI resistance Result

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1 Kurle et. al. 2007From five MTCT centers, India.Not Availablesamples collected from HIV-infected infants who received a single dose of nevirapine and were borne to HIV-infected mothers who were also administered SD-NVP at the onset of labor. within 48 h of birth : 19 samples C (100%) rate of mutations associated with NVP drug resistance
was 10.5% (i.e., 2/19 samples)
Not Available Not Available There is need to evaluate the emergence of drug resistance among
women as well as infants receiving antiretroviral prophylaxis. The emergence of NVP resistance must be weighed against the
simplicity, efficacy, and cost effectiveness of single-dose NVP
prophylaxis.
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2 Sehgal et.al 2008 Northern India Not Available children (1.5 to 12 years age) with AIDS . Out of 25, six were drug naïve while rest had been on duovir (AZT, 3TC) or duovir-N (AZT, 3TC, NVP) for at least 8 months. None of the mothers of the babies studied had received prophylactic ART or sd-NVP during labour. 25 Not Available Mutation at codon 215 were not observed in any child. The mutation codon K103N (56%) Not Available Not Available High resistance to nevirapine in treated children Download Sequences
3 Moorthy et al. 2009 Western India. The SWEN trial, India. Effects of Single and Extended-Dose Nevirapine
Prophylaxis in Subtype C HIV-Infected Infants
74 (25 SWEN & 49 SD-NVP) C (100%) NVP resistance in 92% SWEN and 38% SD-NVP received infants.
NVP-resistance among infants diagnosed in the first six weeks of life,; in SWEN and SD-NVP groups were Y181C (41% vs 32% ) and K103N (18% vs. 20% ), respectively.
In the event of late-breastfeeding transmission, the frequencies of Y188C/H for SWEN & SD-NVP groups was similar (50% vs. 50% ).
Not Available Not Available Use of SWEN to prevent breast-milk HIV transmission carries a high likelihood of resistance if infection occurs in the first six weeks of life. Moreover, there was a continued risk of transmission of NVP-resistant HIV through breastfeeding during the first year of life, but did not differ between SD-NVP and SWEN groups. Download Sequences
4 Lakshmi Rajesh et. al 2010 Southern India July 2007 to March 2008 HIV-infected, ART-naive primigravidae between 18-25 years of age, at baseline (during pregnancy) and after delivery among antenatal women exposed to single dose NVP. 26 (24 paired and two postnatal only. six (4 antenatal and 2 after Sd-NVP treatment) could not be amplified Not Available No major mutations were observed in any drug class at baseline.
Mutations to NNRTI were observed post-delivery in 33% of women who were treated with Sd-NVP. The mutations observed were Y181C (1), K103N (3) and Y188C (1) conferring resistance to both NVP and efavirenz (EFZ)
No major mutations were observed at baseline.
No major mutations were observed at post delivery
No major mutations were observed at baseline.
No major mutations were observed at post delivery
A high rate of development of NNRTI class resistance among women treated with single-dose NVP was observed Download Sequences
5 Jacobs et.al. 2011 Southern India 2005 Mothers recieving single dose of Nevirapine 36 Not Available NVP resistance in 28% of women at delivery ( K103 in 19.4%, Y181C in 5%).
NVP resistance at 6 week postpartum; K103N (81%), Y181C (66.7%).
Wild type virus had replaced the mutants by one year postpartum in all women except one.
Not Available Not Available NVP resistance mutations were detected in 28% of women who received sdNVP at 6 week after delivery. These mutations were not observed by one year postpartum except in one women. Download Sequences