Study Region Data collectionStudy cohort No. of samples HIV-1 subtype NNRTI resistance NRTI resistance PI resistance Result Download
1 Deshpande
et al. 2004
Western India2003Early stages of HIV-1 disease 128 C (96.1%), & A/C (2.3%) None M184V (2,) None low (1.6%) prevalence of resistant mutations Download Sequences
2 Eshleman
et al. 2005
Western India. 1999-2001 HIV-1 acute seroconverters 12 C (100%) None None None None of the samples had primary drug resistance mutations. Download Sequences
3 Balakrishnan et al. 2005 Southern India 2002-2003 ART naïve patients 50 C (100%) D67E (2%), V118I(2%), L210S (2%) K103E/R (8%), M230L/V (2%), K238N/EQ (4%) 10 (20%) had mutations at known major subtype B positions None of the observed NRTI, NNRTI and PI mutations has been assiciated with ARV dru resistance. Download Sequences
4 Sachdeva
et al. 2005
Northern India. Not Available ART naïve patients 9 Not Reported None None None No mutations were detected in the treatment-naive patients Download Sequences
5 Sen
et al. 2007a
Western India. 2004-2005 ART naïve patients 25 C (100%) None None None There were no observable HIVDR mutations in ARV-naive patients. Download Sequences
6 Sounderajan et al. 2007Southern IndiaNot AvailableART naïve children 48 C (100%) None None None none of the samples had major Drug resistance mutations. Download Sequences
7 Arora
et al. 2008
Northern India Not Available ART naïve patients 49 C (90%) K101R (4.08%), K103R (2.04%), V197I (6.112%), G190V (2.04%), M230D/N (18.37%) V118I (2.04%), V75L/G (4.08%) 14.29% had mutations at known
major subtype B protease.
Mutations at subtype B-defined NRTI, NNRTI and major protease drug resistance positions, none has been associated with ARV drug resistance. Download Sequences
8 Sehgal
et al. 2008
Northern India Not Available ART naïve children 6 Not Reported K103N (33.33%) Not Reported Not Available High rate of mutation conferring resistance to nevirapine Download Sequences
9 Kandathil
et al. 2008
Southern India 2004-2005 ART naïve patients 35 C (100%) Not Reported Not Reported None The treatment naïve strains showed minor resistanc mutations and absence of major resistance mutations in the protease gene. Download Sequences
10 Lall
et al. 2008
Western India. Not Available ART naïve patients 40 C (90%), A1 (5%), & A1C (5%) A98G (2.5%) M41L (2.5%), M184V (2.5%), T215Y (2.5%), D67N (2.5%) V82A (2.5%) Drug resistance-associated
mutations were observed in 10% (4/40) of the study participants
Download Sequences
11 Iqbal
et al. 2009
Southern India 2005-2006 Injecting drug user (naive) 51 HIV 1 C (100%) Not Available M41LM (1.8%), K65KN (1.8%), G73GS (2.7%) Not Available Low prevalence of mutations within the group but there is a high chance of transmittance in IDU Download Sequences
12 Deshpande
et al. 2011
Western India. Not Available HIV-1 infected and naive of ART, and eligible for first line ART 52 C (98%) , A/C (2%) K103N (3.92%) & V106M (5.88%) None M46I (3.92%) 9.6% (5/52) Surveillance Drug Resistance Mutaions Download Sequences
13 Neogi et al. 2011 Southern India 2010-2011
2 samples collected in 2007
People attending the hospital previously unexposed to Protease inhibitors 39 C (100%) Not Available Not Available I54T (2.6%) Low prevalence of HIVDR in PI drug class. L63P mutation selected mainly in Indian Phenotypes. Protese catalytics activity and the resistance to PI may differ in diferent subtypes. Download Sequences
14 Sinha et al 2012 Northern India April 2006 to August 2008 chronic HIV-1 infected ART naïve patients eligible for first line ART 73 (68 patients DNA was successfully amplified and sequenced) C (97%) A1(1.5%) B (1.5%) None M184V (1.47%) D30N (1.47%) The study revealed that the prevalence of primary HIV DRMs is 2.9% in northern India, which is within the WHO threshold limit of <5%. Download Sequences
15 Kumar et al. 2014 Western India May 2009 to November 2010 HIV-1-infected children 50 (28 samples showed HIV-1 RNA levels > 1,000 copies/ ml C (96.30%) A1 (3.70%) A98G (3.70%) K103N (3.70%) None None Report the presence of drug resistance mutations in 7.4% (2/27) of the treatment-naive, HIV-1-infected children in Pune, India, who had HIV-1 RNA levels > 1,000 copies/ml. Highlighting the importance of resistance assays in this pediatric age group at the time of diagnosis, prior to initiation of ART. Download Sequences