|Sr.No.||Study||Region||Data collection||Study cohort||No. of samples||HIV-1 subtype||NNRTI resistance||NRTI resistance||PI resistance||Result|
|1||Sen et al.2007||Western India||2004-2005||ARV experienced and chronically infected||36||C (99%), A1 (1%).||K103N (31.03%) Y181C (31.03%) A98G (20.6%) V108I(13.79%) G190A (24.61%)||M184I (68.96%) T215F/Y (31.09%) K70R (20.68%) D67N (31.03) M41L (27.58%)||None||Higher prevalence of proviral HIV-Drug resistance in PBMNCs in association with non adherence to therapy.||Download Sequences|
|2||Deshpande et al. 2007||Western India||Not Available||Patients receiving HAART for 6months - 6 years||112||C (97.3%), A1 (1.7%), B (0.8%).||K101E (15.17%) K103N/S (27.6%) V106M/A (10%)||M184I/V (72.3%) T215F/Y (43.7%) M41L (35.7%) D67N (35.7%) L210W (8.0 %) K219E/Q (10%)||NR||In subtype C isolates, it was observed that, most of the mutations noted in RT for subtype B with some additional substitutions
(at positions 98, 203, 208, and 221) also noted. While using the algorithms, there is need to give attention on these position.
|3||Kandathil et al. 2008||Southern India||Not Available||Treatment failure patients||3||C (66.6%), A(33.3%)||NR||NR||M46I D30N (1) , M46I I54V(1), V82I L90M (1)||Though PR resistance looks high in this case due to small sample size, overall PR resistance less due to low use of PI in HAART therapy||Download Sequences|
et al. 2009
|Southern India||2005-2007||ART regimen for more than 8 months||20||C (100%)||K103N(45%) Y181C (15%) Y188L(20%)||M184V(90%) T215F/Y (20%)||None||The use of HIVDR testing is required to check the prevalence of the drug resistance mutation that arises following first ART line regimen failure. This will help in establishing guidelines for second line regimen in India.||Download Sequences|
|5||Lakshmi Rajesh et. al. 2009||Southern India||Not Available||Patients with HIV-1 & TB co-infection receiving ART for 6 months||87||Majority belong to HIV-1 subtype C, one isolate belongs to HIV1 subtype A1||V106M ( %) Y181C ( %)||M184V ( %) L74I ( %)||Not Available||Major NNRTI mutation are V106M and Y181Cthat emerged in EFZ and NVP group respectively. Among NRTI mutations, M184V was the commonest followed by L74I=V. Primary drug resistance to antiretroviral drugs was low among HIV-1 co-infected TB patients in south India. A once-daily regimen of ddI/3TC/EFZ or NVP results in a specific
pattern of NNRTI mutations and negligible thymidine analog mutations (TAMs).
|6||Gupta et al. 2010||Western India||2005||Patients on ART regimen for more than 3 months||51||C (98%), B (2%).||K101E/P (21.6%) K103N/S (27.5%) G190A/S/E (21.6%)||M184V (90.2%) TAM M41L (25%) D67N (35.3%) K70R (19.6%)||I54V(5.9%) V82A(3.9%) L90M(3.9%)||The need for greater viral load and resistance monitoring, use of optimal ART combinations, and increased availability of second- and third-line agents for patients with ARV resistance.||Download Sequences|
|7||Neogi et al. 2011||Southern India||Not Available||Longitudinal study cohort ( from Prerana study), ART failing patients (viral load >1000 copies/ml)||101||C (100%)||Y181 (35.9%), K101 (20.7%), G190 (17.4%), V108 (15.2%)||Not Available||Not Available||Reported the high prevalence of etravirine cross-resistance (41%) among the patients infected with HIV-1 C virus and failing first-generation NNRTI based regimens in India. The high prevalence of Y181 and K101.||Download Sequences|
|8||Saravanan et al 2012||Southern India||2008 and 2009||cross-sectional study among individuals receiving second-line antiretroviral treatment for > 6 months||107||C (98%) A1 (2%)||NNRTI mutations (73%). K103N, Y181C, and G190A were the predominant NNRTI mutations.||M184V (89%) TAMs (71%) TAM1 (50%) TAM2 (28%) TAM1+TAM2 (22%)||M46I (49%) I54 V/A (38%) V82A (38%) L90M (31%)||The results of the study showed that the majority of patients receiving second-line antiretroviral therapy started to accumulate PR resistance mutations, and the mutation profiles suggest that darunavir might be the drug of choice for third-line regimens in India.||Download Sequences|
|9||Patil et al. 2014||Western India||2009-2011||cross-sectional study (100 consecutive HIV-1 infected individuals attending the ART centre)||100 (Of the 19 plasma samples which showed HIV-1 RNA level > 1000/mL, 16 could be amplified and sequenced)||C (93.75%) A1 (6.25%)||K103N/S (31.57%).||M184V (42.10%)||Not Available||Out of the 100 HIV-1 infected individuals, 81 showed HIVDR prevention (HIV-1 RNA level < 1000/mL), while the remaining 19 had HIV-1 viral RNA level > 1000/mL. The most frequent NRTI-associated mutation observed was M184V, while K103N/S was the commonest mutation at NNRTI resistance position.||Download Sequences|