Sr.No. Study Region Data collectionStudy cohort No. of samples HIV-1 subtype NNRTI resistance NRTI resistance PI resistance Result

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1 Sen et al.2007Western India2004-2005ARV experienced and chronically infected 36 C (99%), A1 (1%). K103N (31.03%) Y181C (31.03%) A98G (20.6%) V108I(13.79%) G190A (24.61%) M184I (68.96%) T215F/Y (31.09%) K70R (20.68%) D67N (31.03) M41L (27.58%) None Higher prevalence of proviral HIV-Drug resistance in PBMNCs in association with non adherence to therapy. Download Sequences
2 Deshpande et al. 2007 Western India Not Available Patients receiving HAART for 6months - 6 years 112 C (97.3%), A1 (1.7%), B (0.8%). K101E (15.17%) K103N/S (27.6%) V106M/A (10%) M184I/V (72.3%) T215F/Y (43.7%) M41L (35.7%) D67N (35.7%) L210W (8.0 %) K219E/Q (10%) NR In subtype C isolates, it was observed that, most of the mutations noted in RT for subtype B with some additional substitutions
(at positions 98, 203, 208, and 221) also noted. While using the algorithms, there is need to give attention on these position.
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3 Kandathil et al. 2008 Southern India Not Available Treatment failure patients 3 C (66.6%), A(33.3%) NR NR M46I D30N (1) , M46I I54V(1), V82I L90M (1) Though PR resistance looks high in this case due to small sample size, overall PR resistance less due to low use of PI in HAART therapy Download Sequences
4 Kandathil
et al. 2009
Southern India 2005-2007 ART regimen for more than 8 months 20 C (100%) K103N(45%) Y181C (15%) Y188L(20%) M184V(90%) T215F/Y (20%) None The use of HIVDR testing is required to check the prevalence of the drug resistance mutation that arises following first ART line regimen failure. This will help in establishing guidelines for second line regimen in India. Download Sequences
5 Lakshmi Rajesh et. al. 2009 Southern India Not Available Patients with HIV-1 & TB co-infection receiving ART for 6 months 87 Majority belong to HIV-1 subtype C, one isolate belongs to HIV1 subtype A1 V106M ( %) Y181C ( %) M184V ( %) L74I ( %) Not Available Major NNRTI mutation are V106M and Y181Cthat emerged in EFZ and NVP group respectively. Among NRTI mutations, M184V was the commonest followed by L74I=V. Primary drug resistance to antiretroviral drugs was low among HIV-1 co-infected TB patients in south India. A once-daily regimen of ddI/3TC/EFZ or NVP results in a specific
pattern of NNRTI mutations and negligible thymidine analog mutations (TAMs).
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6 Gupta et al. 2010 Western India 2005 Patients on ART regimen for more than 3 months 51 C (98%), B (2%). K101E/P (21.6%) K103N/S (27.5%) G190A/S/E (21.6%) M184V (90.2%) TAM M41L (25%) D67N (35.3%) K70R (19.6%) I54V(5.9%) V82A(3.9%) L90M(3.9%) The need for greater viral load and resistance monitoring, use of optimal ART combinations, and increased availability of second- and third-line agents for patients with ARV resistance. Download Sequences
7 Neogi et al. 2011 Southern India Not Available Longitudinal study cohort ( from Prerana study), ART failing patients (viral load >1000 copies/ml) 101 C (100%) Y181 (35.9%), K101 (20.7%), G190 (17.4%), V108 (15.2%) Not Available Not Available Reported the high prevalence of etravirine cross-resistance (41%) among the patients infected with HIV-1 C virus and failing first-generation NNRTI based regimens in India. The high prevalence of Y181 and K101. Download Sequences
8 Saravanan et al 2012 Southern India 2008 and 2009 cross-sectional study among individuals receiving second-line antiretroviral treatment for > 6 months 107 C (98%) A1 (2%) NNRTI mutations (73%). K103N, Y181C, and G190A were the predominant NNRTI mutations. M184V (89%) TAMs (71%) TAM1 (50%) TAM2 (28%) TAM1+TAM2 (22%) M46I (49%) I54 V/A (38%) V82A (38%) L90M (31%) The results of the study showed that the majority of patients receiving second-line antiretroviral therapy started to accumulate PR resistance mutations, and the mutation profiles suggest that darunavir might be the drug of choice for third-line regimens in India. Download Sequences
9 Patil et al. 2014 Western India 2009-2011 cross-sectional study (100 consecutive HIV-1 infected individuals attending the ART centre) 100 (Of the 19 plasma samples which showed HIV-1 RNA level > 1000/mL, 16 could be amplified and sequenced) C (93.75%) A1 (6.25%) K103N/S (31.57%). M184V (42.10%) Not Available Out of the 100 HIV-1 infected individuals, 81 showed HIVDR prevention (HIV-1 RNA level < 1000/mL), while the remaining 19 had HIV-1 viral RNA level > 1000/mL. The most frequent NRTI-associated mutation observed was M184V, while K103N/S was the commonest mutation at NNRTI resistance position. Download Sequences