Surveillance of Transmitted HIV Type 1 Drug Resistance Among HIV Type 1-Positive Women Attending an Antenatal Clinic in Kakinada, India.
The World Health Organizations HIV Drug Resistance (WHOHIVDR) Threshold survey method was used to assess transmitted HIVDR in newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected primigravida women attending the Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) centers in Kakinada, in whom it is likely that the infection had recently occurred. Out of the 56 consecutively collected eligible specimens, 51 were tested using the ViroSeq RT-PCR method (Abbott Germany) to obtain 47 consecutive sequences for the HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) region. As per the 2009 WHO list of mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIVDR, only one nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)mutation was detected at K101E from all specimens tested, suggesting a low prevalence( <5%) of resistance to NNRTIs and no mutations were detected at other sites, suggesting a low prevalence ( <5%) of resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and protease inhibitors (PI) drug classes as well. Phylogenetic analysis showed all sequences belonged to HIV-1 subtype C. In the wake of antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up, future evaluation of transmitted HIVDR is essential in Kakinada as well as in other regions of India.